The potential contribution of sodium to chronic disease risk has been an area of exploration for many years. Currently, a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee is working to update the 2005 Dietary Reference Intakes for sodium and potassium, evaluating the latest evidence with a look to excesses, inadequacies, and chronic disease risk reduction. Two recent reports will support the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine review: a systematic review of the science related to sodium, potassium, and chronic disease and guidelines for considering chronic disease in setting dietary reference intakes. While sodium intake reduction initiatives have been underway for years, current intake estimates significantly exceed recommendations. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration issued draft guidance on voluntary sodium reduction targets for 150 food categories. This review is based on a session at the American Society for Nutrition 2018 Annual Meeting, which brought together stakeholders to discuss these developments, progress, conundrums, and opportunities toward reducing sodium intakes.