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Race/Ethnicity, Enrichment/Fortification, and Dietary Supplementation in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2009–2012


In the United States (U.S.), food fortification and/or enrichment and dietary supplement (DS) use impacts nutrient intakes. Our aim was to examine race/ethnicity and income (Poverty Income Ratio, PIR) differences in meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes based on estimated dietary intakes among the U.S. population age ≥2 years (n = 16,975). Two 24-hour recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2009-2012 were used to estimate the intake of 15 nutrients as naturally occurring, enriched/fortified, and plus DSs. Across racial/ethnic groups and within PIR categories, significant differences were observed in the %< Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamin A following enrichment/fortification (E/F) and for vitamin B12 and riboflavin following both E/F and DS use when comparing non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and the other race/ethnicity group to non-Hispanic whites. The %<EAR for iron and calcium also differed depending on race/ethnicity within PIR category (p < 0.05). The %<EAR was significantly lower for vitamin D after E/F for Hispanics, and after E/F combined with DS use for vitamins C and B6 for Hispanics and the other race/ethnicity group than non-Hispanic whites. Non-Hispanic blacks were inadequate in all nutrients examined except vitamin C based on the %<EAR than individuals of other races/ethnicities. Differences in the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of nutrients, especially folate and zinc, also varied by race/ethnicity and PIR category.

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