Abstract: The purpose of this work is to systematically consider the data relating to the mode of action (MOA) for the effects of industrially produced trans fatty acid (iTFA) on plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The hypothesized MOA is composed of two key events: increased LDL production and decreased LDL clearance. A substantial database supports this MOA, although the key events are likely to be interdependent, rather than sequential. Both key events are functions of nonlinear biological processes including rate-limited clearance, receptor-mediated transcription, and both positive and negative feedback regulation. Each key event was evaluated based on weight-of-evidence analysis and for human relevance. We conclude that the data are inadequate for a detailed dose-response analysis in the context of the evolved Bradford Hill considerations; however, the weight of evidence is strong and the overall shape of the dose-response curves for markers of the key events and the key determinants of those relationships is well understood in many cases and is nonlinear. Feedback controls are responsible for maintaining homeostasis of cholesterol and triglyceride levels and underlie both of the key events, resulting in a less-than-linear or thresholded relationship between TFA and LDL-C. The inconsistencies and gaps in the database are discussed.
Citation: John F. Reichard 1, L. T. H. (2016). Mode-of-action evaluation for the effect of trans fatty acids on low- density lipoprotein cholesterol. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1–13.