Dietary Fiber and the Human Gut Microbiota: Application of Evidence Mapping Methodology

Abstract: Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidencemap of current research activity in this areawas created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studieswith the following broad outcomes: (1)modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2) colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categorieswere summarized. A sub-analysis described oligosaccharides and bacterial composition in greater detail. One hundred eighty-eight relevant studies were identified. The fiber categories represented by the most studies were oligosaccharides (20%), resistant starch (16%), and chemically synthesized fibers (15%). Short-chain fatty acid concentration (47%) and bacterial composition (88%) were the most frequently studied outcomes. Whole-diet interventions, measures of bacterial activity, and studies in metabolically at-risk subjects were identified as potential gaps in the evidence. This evidence map efficiently captured the variability in characteristics of expanding research on dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and physiological health benefits, and identified areas that may benefit from further research. We hope that this evidence map will provide a resource for researchers to direct new intervention studies and meta-analyses.

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Citation: Sawicki CM, Livingston KA, Obin M, Roberts SB, Chung M, Mckeown NM. Dietary Fiber and the Human Gut Microbiota : Application of Evidence Mapping Methodology. (Cvd):1-21. doi:10.3390/nu9020125.