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Experimental Biology 2014

San Diego, California, USA
April 26, 2014 – April 30, 2014

Below is a list of the ILSI North America-sponsored events that took place at Experimental Biology 2014 .

1) “Sugars and Health: Applying Evidence Mapping Methods to Assess the Evidence”

Poster Presentation Details
Sunday, 27 April 2014
1:45pm-2:45pm PT
San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Halls A-D

Abstract Number: 4308
Program Number: 630.10
Poster Board Number: C169
First Author: Samantha Berger

Abstract: Evidence mapping (EM) is a novel, systematic method for describing the volume and characteristics of research in a broad field. We applied EM to evaluate the empirical evidence of the state of science on the relationships between sugars and cardiometabolic health-related outcomes. A pre-defined, systematic study selection process was applied to a broad Medline search (through April 2013) of the existing literature on sugars. Studies reporting cardiometabolic risk factors and/or related clinical outcomes were selected for this study. Data from the studies were extracted and deposited to a data repository. Descriptive analyses were performed. Our EM included 207 studies (196 intervention and 11 cohort studies). Of the intervention studies, the most common sugar interventions were sucrose (40%) and fructose (31%), and the top two controls were glucose (14%) and starch (13%). The most studied outcomes were glycemic profiles (27%), plasma lipids (11%), and anthropometrics (7%). Studies were generally short in duration (median 26 days, ranging from <1 to 730 days). 89% were in adults and 6% were in children. The 11 cohort studies investigated 3 different sugar exposures and 9 different hard clinical outcomes. An extensive but heterogeneous body of evidence exists in this broad field of research. EM is a useful method for identifying “hot” research areas and research gaps. Evidence-based methods are effective to direct future research.

This presentation was sponsored by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Carbohydrates.

Video is available here.

2) “Neurocognition: the Food-Brain Connection”

Monday, 28 April 2014
8:00am – 12:30 pm
San Diego Convention Center, Ballroom 20D

Speakers

  • Introductory Remarks — James O. Hill, PhD, University of Colorado
  • Food and the brain: Current perspectives, controversies and misunderstandings of terminology, methodology, and applications — Kent Berridge, PhD, University of MichiganVideo
  • Obesity and the brain: Is evidence sufficient that human food addiction exists? — Nicole Avena, PhD, University of FloridaVideo
  • Obesity and the brain: How convincing is the addiction model? — Hisham Ziauddeen, PhD, University of Cambridge | Video
  • Panel discussion with Drs. Berridge, Avena and Ziauddeen — Dr. Hill, moderator
  • The benefits and limitations of current neuroimaging methods in the study of food reward and control of food intake — Miguel Alonso-Alonso, PhD, Harvard University Video
  • Answering the essential questions: the agenda going forward — David Allison, PhD, University of Alabama at Birmingham Video
  • Town Hall — The Agenda for Future Research – Moderated panel discussion with all speakers followed by audience discussion – Dr. Hill, Moderator | Video

This session was partly sponsored by ILSI North America.

3) “Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Food Choices of U.S. Adults”

Oral Presentation Details
Session Title: Public Policy Nutrition: Nutrition Research and Surveillance to Improve the Health of the U.S. Population
Tuesday, 29 April 2014
12:00pm-12:15pm PT
San Diego Convention Center, Room 29D

First Author: Donna Rhodes
Abstract Number: 5901
Program Number: 384.7

Abstract: The relationship between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) has been studied extensively; however, research is limited on the range of intake of sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) consumed in the U.S. The purpose of this research was to examine the typical ranges of Na, K, and Na/K and the food choices contributing to Na and K across different ratios. Study sample included nationally representative data for adult (20+yr) males (n=5450) and females (n=5731) participating in What We Eat in America (WWEIA) NHANES 2007-2010. Dietary intake data were obtained from an in-person 24-hour recall collected using the 5-step USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. WWEIA Food Categories were used to define food and beverages as consumed. Mean Na/K was 1.5 (0.01) for males and 1.4 (0.01) for females. Fewer than 2% of adults met the recommended Na/K of 0.49 (2300mg Na/4700mg K). Distribution of Na/K at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile was 0.8, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2, respectively for males; and 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, 1.7 and 2.1 for females. Among individuals with Na/K <1.0 vs Na/K ≥ 1.0, milk and dairy foods contributed 8% vs 6% of daily Na and 12% vs 9% of daily K. Mixed dishes contributed 22% vs 31% of daily Na and 11% vs 20% of daily K, respectively. Fruit and vegetables contributed 12% vs 6% of total daily Na and 25% vs 18% of daily K. These data highlight the importance of food choices to achieve improved sodium to potassium ratios in the U.S. population

Video is available here.

This abstract can be found in The FASEB Journal.

This presentation was sponsored by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Sodium.

4) “Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Body Weight and Composition: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Prospective Cohorts”

Oral Presentation Details
Session Title: Obesity: Body Composition
Tuesday, April 29, 2014
3:00pm – 3:15pm
San Diego Convention Center, Room 30C

Abstract Number: 3766
Program Number: 391.1
First Author: Paige Miller

Abstract: Findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohorts examining the relationship between low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) and body weight and composition have been mixed, and past reviews have been qualitative. This meta-analysis systematically reviewed and quantitatively summarized results, separately, from 15 RCTs and 10 prospective cohorts. Meta-analyses evaluated weighted mean change in body weight and composition values between the LCS intervention and placebo groups among RCTs, and weighted mean correlations for LCS intake and body weight and composition parameters among cohorts. Compared to placebo, LCS from food, beverages, or supplements significantly reduced body weight (-0.74 kg, 95% CI: -1.10, -0.38), fat mass (-1.18 kg -95% CI: -1.75, -0.60), and waist circumference (-0.93 cm, 95% CI: -1.74, -0.12). An energy-reduced diet in combination with LCS resulted in the largest weight reduction (-1.15 kg, 95% CI: -1.71, -0.59). In contrast, the meta-analysis of cohorts showed that LCS intake was significantly associated with increased body mass index (0.034, 95% CI: 0.009, 0.060), and nonsignificantly associated with increased body weight (0.024, 95% CI: -0.010, 0.058) and fat mass (0.035, 95% CI: -0.026, 0.096). Overall, available evidence from RCTs indicates that LCS may help reduce body weight and composition parameters, although this finding is not supported by cohort data.

Video is available here.

This presentation was sponsored by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Low Calorie Sweeteners.

5) “Fortification and Health: Opportunities and Challenges”

More information and video recordings of this Pre-EB scientific session, held Saturday, 26 April, can be found here.